SWISSRADIOLOGY.COM

SWISSRADIOLOGY.COM

SWISS RADIOLOGY PORTAL

IRM ouverte
Magnetic Resonance

Scanner
CT-Scan

Radiographie
Digital Radiology

Mammographie
Mammography

Densitométrie
Densitometry

Echographie
Ultrasound / Interventional Radiology

Indication des examensi
Current pathology
imaging guidelines

Caducee@
Swiss Physicians email directory

Astuces
Tips page

Liens
Links

Abbreviations

The Hippocratic Oath

Institute access map

Patient prepararation

Site map

Home

Website in french

Digital Roentgenology

example of X-ray and digital fluoroscopy inclinable table

Conventional radiological procedures listed hereafter all use roentnograms obtained with an X-ray tube:
  • Chest, bone and soft tissues roentnograms
  • Mammography - galactography - stereotaxy
  • Fluoroscopy (real time X-ray study of the body)
  • Sialography (salivary gland canals opacification)
  • Cholecystography (gallbladder opacification)
  • Barium meal (upper digestive tract study by ingestion of a barium suspension)
  • Small bowel enema (small intestine study)
  • Barium enema (colonic study)
  • Intravenous pyelography (excretory urography for kidney diseases)
  • Phlebography (vein study)
  • Fistulography (fistula tract opacification)
  • Arthrography (joint space opacification)
  • Hysterosalpingography (uterus and fallopian tube opacification)
  • Radiculography (lumbar nerve roots study)
  • Angiography with digital substraction (artery or vein opacification)

Get yourself ready for a radiological procedure

top

X-rays are a form of radiant energy, like light, radio or TV waves but they have a shorter wave length, as can be seen hereafter, enabling them to go through matter

top

Radioprotection: diagnostic medical radiation exposure is anavoidable but it usually represents only a small part of environmental natural radiation exposure, as shown in table hereafter. According to strict radioprotection laws, every effort is made to minimize patient dose without compromizing diagnostic efficiency

Diagnostic procedure

Typical effective
dose (mSv)
Equivalent No.
of chest x-rays
Approx. equivalent period
of natural background
radiation (UK)

X-ray examinations:

Limbs and joints (except hip)
Chest (single PA film)
Skull
Thoracic spine
Lumbar spine
Hip
Pelvis
Abdomen
IVU
Barium swallow
Barium meal
Barium follow through
Barium enema
CT head
CT chest
CT abdomen or pelvis

Radionuclide studies:

Lung ventilation (Xe-133)
Lung perfusion (Tc-99m)
Kidney (Tc-99m)
Thyroid (Tc-99m)
Bone (Tc-99m)
Dynamic cardiac (Tc-99m)
PET head (F-18 FDG)

<0.01

0.02
0.07
0.7
1.3
0.3
0.7
1.0
2.5
1.5
3
3
7
2.3
8
10



0.3
1
1
1
4
6
5

<0.5

1
3.5
35
65
15
35
50
125
75
150
150
350
115
400
500



15
50
50
50
200
300
250

<1.5 days

3 days
11 days
4 months
7 months
7 weeks
4 months
6 months
14 months
8 months
16 months
16 months
3.2 years
1 year
3.6 years
4.5 years

7 weeks
6 months
6 months
6 months
1.8 years
2.7 years
2.3 years
Radiation Protection 118 Referral guidelines for imaging, ISBN 92-828-9454-1 © European Communities, 2001

See also Radiation Dose Calculator, UIC - Radiation and Life

top

Example of X-ray film: chest

Chest X-ray

PA = Pulmonary Artery
TR = Trachea
CL = Clavicle
AA = Aortic Arch
SVC = Superior Vena Cava
RA = Right Atrium
CoPhs = Costophrenic sulcus


LV = Left Ventricle
D = Diaphragm
G = Gastric air bubble
L = Liver
Sca = Scapula
R = Rib

top